This type is overwhelmingly used in insurgencies where the actor has a low level of territorial control. Terrorists use precursor chemicals frequently in detonator construction, but they also opt for pre-made systems acquired from commercial sources when possible. S VBIEDs are very adaptable weapons, and can be modified to function in a variety of different settings. With each level of difficulty introduced into the process, fewer bombers will be successful in their endeavors. This entry was posted on Thursday, April 10th, at Some explosives require a large mass to propagate a detonation, and the precursors needed to produce these explosives may not be suited for the production of smaller charges. To counter the threat of chlorate explosives, the United Kingdom government mandated the addition of a diluent to weed killer to reduce its explosive potential.
In such an explosion the following overpressures and damage radii would ensue around ground zero At a distance of meters an overpressure of 0. Ratings were made in a conservative fashion when possible, with some chemicals that had been used by single groups, under very limiting circumstances, receiving a lower priority rating. Detonators use precursor chemicals in very small amounts, but the primary explosives they produce are often very sensitive and unstable. Improvised explosive devices IEDs are a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can be deployed in a variety of ways, and can cause loss of life, injury, and property damage in both military and civilian environments. To make a blended explosive, at least one precursor chemical must be an oxidizer a chemical source of oxygen and one must be a fuel a chemical or compound that can react with oxygen in a combustion-like process. These are not the only possible charges for each use-case. Looking at the trend in Table , more bombing incidents are reporting smaller charge mass sizes, consistent with PBIEDs.
Sodium chlorate was mixed with the energetic fuel nitrobenzene to make small explosive charges.
These are up-armored or camouflaged SVBIEDs that have both a driver and a light or heavy machine gunner tasked with suppressing the target. IS are an exceptional case though.
Precursor chemicals used to produce these explosives tend to be fertilizers e. The pulverized CAN could be mixed with a variety of fuels to make an effective explosive filler.
Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This type is overwhelmingly used in insurgencies where the actor has a low level of territorial control.
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This entry was posted on Thursday, April 10th, at To compensate for this change PIRA began using alternative fuels. The idea is to increase the chances of the SVBIED being able to reach the intended point of detonation, and it is typically used on targets considered to be especially difficult. To counter the threat of chlorate explosives, the United Kingdom government mandated the addition of a diluent to weed killer to reduce its explosive potential.
According to the news the car bomb exploded outside a Bank of Greece building in the heart caase Athens Thursday, causing damage but no injuries. Who is reporting IED harm?
Not all precursor chemicals can be used to make the main charges for every bombing scenario. Groups involved in explosive attacks and the types vbie explosives employed by each are shown in Figure The PIRA bombing campaign began around and employed devices filled with readily available dynamite stolen from quarries and mines.
Page 28 Share Cite. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? The handbook includes a glossary and selected bibliography. For the criterion of historical usage, chemicals previously used to produce explosives Y were assigned higher priority, and those whose usage was either extremely rare or largely theoretical N were assigned lower priority.
In this study, the committee chose to conduct an in-depth examination of the Group A precursor chemicals. The immense pressure felt by the ongoing ground and aerial campaign against them has also forced them to experiment and innovate in many other aspects. Limitations of precursor availability also dictate usage, independent of the properties of the explosives they can make; some chemicals are simply not available in large quantities.
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While both subtypes were used extensively, they each served a studyy purpose. Thus, in this situation, urea would be categorized as dependent D on nitric acid, while nitric acid would be judged independent I.
Explosives used against aviation targets historically have been military formulations due to their reliability and power, although recent terrorist plots against aircraft have used Cqse, albeit below the mass seen in PBIEDs. Sstudy applicable groups may include interdepartmental, interagency, and intergovernmental personnel; civilian contractors; nongovernmental personnel; private volunteers; humanitarian relief organizations; and the general citizenry.
This handbook supports operational missions, institutional training, and professional military education for U. Compiled from open source materials, the handbook promotes a ‘Threats’ perspective and enemy situational awareness of U.
Switch between the Original Pageswhere you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. For a fuller list of food products, refer to Figure These are not the only possible charges for each use-case. Studyy, it was judged impractical to control very small amounts of any particular precursor chemical and, for this reason, precursor chemicals used only to construct charges for detonators e.
Please support AOAV’s work and donate. The original document contains color images. Page 35 Share Cite.