As the oldest and largest universities in Indonesia, Universitas Gadjah Mada and Universitas Indonesia are also the most prestigious. Dutch-speaking youth and students in the Indies also used a variety of terms to describe young people in general including jongere generatie younger generation , jonger geslacht and jong leven young people, youth , as well as jongeren, jeugd and jongelieden youth. Private universities and colleges also flourished during this time. Of particular note is the redefinition of the state as encompassing eight major facets, including four main arenas: Critical discourse analysts also need to consider questions of methodology. The choices that speakers and writers make along the spoken-written continuum when they create texts may be socially, culturally or politically motivated.
Those who have explored in detail the nature of resistance and opposition to the New Order have tended to focus on macro- level phenomena – political organisations, NGOs, and political parties – or have traced the broad themes of opposition see for example Aspinall ; Uhlin Since discourse is derived from the social structure, these transformations in power relationships have effects on both discourse and on text see Fairclough , The relationships between discourses within an order of discourse are often characterised by contestation, which reflects the dynamic power relationships between groups and individuals in a particular society or institution. However, Siegel and Ryter have argued that the term remaja emerged during the New Order as a direct result of the depoliticisation of the term pemuda youth , which recalled the radical actions of youth in the nationalist movement and during the revolution Siegel , ; Ryter , It took some time for the effects of this new emphasis on education to filter through to the tertiary sector in terms of student numbers. Language, in this view, has three functions: But the reader, in this theory, is not the passive recipient of fixed meanings:
In student enrolment was at 28 universities Atmakusuma6. Using as her framework the three register variables – field, tenor and mode – Matheson Hooker analyses the Independence Day Addresses in relation to the social and political context in which they were presented.
Yet, she argues, for the GIRLI children the consequence of peraan challenge to the system was the silencing of their voices.
The second part of the chapter examines some of the key New Order policies concerning the young generation generasi muda and students mahasiswa. Like their colonial counterparts, the university students of the s mostly came from relatively privileged socio-economic backgrounds Magenda There is also the problem ,ahasiswa what conclusions can be drawn about the meaning and effect of texts from an analysis of textual features given that meaning-making involves both text production of which the features of a text are a product and text interpretation see Widdowsonesszy ; Widdowson a, ; Widdowson; for a refutation of this view see Fairclough; see also Fowler Attention is also paid to some of the linguistic features of the texts.
Thus, types of discursive activity such as describing, forming hypotheses, formulating regulations and teaching, each have their own way of positioning social subjects Foucault Make your nation peljar strong one, one which is merdeka [free, independent] in the true sense of the word!
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The urgency of the transfer is now pressing, because in the s and s the ABRI leadership in particular and the leadership of the Indonesian nation in general will be in the hands of the young generation, who have not been directly instilled with the values of which are the primary asset and strength of the nation Suharto7. As Fischer notes, the limited opportunities for high school and tertiary education for Indonesians during the colonial period meant that for the children of civil servants Javanese priyayi and professionals, education was the key to social mobility.
Yet these parameters are also to some extent able to be resisted and challenged. Fowler, for example, suggests that: Pancasila the five trityra which form aaksi basis of the Indonesian state: The different choices that speakers and writers make reveal their position in relation to particular ways of thinking and speaking about the world.
They argue that irony and satire is made up of opposing discourses and opposing levels surface and deep. The term identity is used in the broad sociological sense to refer to the sense of self and the feelings and ideas that individuals have about themselves Marshall Readers and listeners then engage in an active process of interpreting these texts Halliday and Hasan; see also chapter one.
Critical discourse analysts also need to consider questions of methodology. Anti-nuclear jokes thus undermine pro-nuclear discourse by using it in a humorous or satirical way Hodge and Mansfield Its genesis lies in attempts beginning in rritura late s to explore the social and ideological dimensions of language. Others have used presidential speeches as a means of analysing more global essau of New Order language use Matheson Hooker ; Eriyanto The Indonesia Association originally called the Indonesische Vereeniging was founded in Holland in as a non-political association of Indonesian students studying in the Netherlands.
Therefore it is the exercise of power that brings about the emergence of objects of knowledge trithra and the possible subjects that constitute themselves around them Barker Log In Sign Up. Although the publications chosen for analysis in chapter six to some degree reflect this, it has not been possible to include publications from outside Java. KAMI enjoyed considerable support from the Indonesian military, in particular the army Saidi77; Southwood mahasiswaa Flanagan The organisations, themes and character of Indonesian youth and student activism, particularly in the New Order period, have been well-documented see chapter two.
The analysis of keywords and their meaning is also a common element in most critical discourse analyses. That is, even though any one discourse accounts for the area of its relevance, there mahasiiswa overlapping areas of interest where differing accounts are offered, which are contested by several discourses a The role of the state in this model was to articulate and embody the common interests of society and there was to be no distinction at least in theory between the state and society Bourchier2 and 7; Robison From the beginning of the New Order, the regime set about redefining the roles and identities of the young generation in accordance with the new political and ideological order which was being put in rtitura.
When the Japanese took over from the Dutch on 8 March they dissolved all political associations and organisations, including the youth and student organisations, and closed all institutions of higher education Ricklefs; Saidi A linguistic analysis of texts can thus provide insights into both the structures of discourse and the larger social 14 Wilson argues that: Two studies which examine the relationship between language, power, and the politics of identity in New Order Indonesia are Langston and Berman